Two devices can communicate with each other when they are connected to some way to the same link at the same time. Point to point and multi-point are two possible types of network connections.

Point-to-point connection:

A point-to-point connection is a direct link between the sender and the receiver of two devices. Basically, it is a connection between two nodes or endpoints. This is a link between each individual pair of sender and receiver. The capacity of the entire channel is reserved only for the transmission of the packet between the sender and receiver. It is also abbreviated as P2P connection. For example, there is a point-to-point connection between the remote control and a TV.

In Figure, the point-to-point connectivity is established using PPP between a PC and a Server. The PC authenticates using a username and a password and then the server accepts the connection on successful authentication.

  • In this network connection, all capacity is reserved by two nodes i-e sender or receiver.
  • A point-to-point connection has just one transmitter and one receiver.
  • In point-to-point connection, the smallest distance is most important to reach the destination because it delivers very high bandwidth and very low latency.
  • It provides security and privacy because the link is not shared by other devices.
  • Frame relay, T-carrier, X.25, etc are examples of point-to-point network connection.
  • It is also called a direct connection.

Multipoint connection:

In a multipoint connection, there is a link between the sender and multiple receivers. So, more devices can share a single link. For example, in a wifi-based network, a single link is shared among multiple devices.

In the figure, you can see 5 work stations share a common link to the main frame work station. The multipoint network is also called a broadband network.

In broadband networks, when the sender sends a packet it is received by every work station on the link, and with the help of the address field in the packet receiver determines that packet belongs to it or not. If it doesn’t belong to that receiver, it skips and moves to the next until it reaches to its specific destination.

  • Multi-point connection does not provide security and privacy because its link is shared by multiple users.
  • The channel capacity is shared temporarily to the devices connected to the link.
  • The multipoint connection has a single transmitter and multiple receivers.
  • In multipoint network connection, small distance doesn’t matter to reach the receiver.
  • Multipoint network connection shared its link all times to its connected devices.
  • Frame Relay, token ring, Ethernet, ATM are examples of a multipoint connection